# Surveying pdf

in land surveying maps and plan showing the features on the land. Types of Surveying On the basis of whether the curvature of the earth is taken into account or not, surveying can be divided into two main categories: Plane surveying: is the type of surveying where the mean surface of the earth is considered as a plane. 2 • Surveying has to do with the determination of the relative spatial location of points on or near the surface of the earth. • It is the art of measuring horizontal and vertical distances between objects, of measuring. Basic Principles of Surveying. The main purpose of surveying from the whole to the part is to localize the errors as working the other way round would magnify the errors and introduce distortions in the survey. In partial terms, this principle involve covering the area to be surveyed with large triangles. What are basic principles of surveying? Object of surveying. The aim of surveying is to prepare a map to show the relative positions of the objects on the surface of the earth. To prepare a topographical map which shows the hills, valleys, rivers, villages, towns, forests, etc.

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## Surveying

These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. Survey data is portrayed graphically by the construction of maps, profiles, cross sections, and diagrams. Types of Surveys: Geodetic Surveying: The type of surveying that takes into account the true shape of the earth. These surveys are of high precision and extend over large areas. Plane Surveying: The type of surveying in which the mean surface

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